Male infertility

Male infertility is pathological condition in which there is violation of male reproductive function. Man for various reasons cannot fertilize female egg during sexual intercourse.

Causes of disease

The causes of male infertility are quite diverse, these include:

  • Ejaculation disorders – lack of sperm, its reverse current, disorders of urinary tract innervation.
  • Psychological disorders of sexual sphere that lead to unfinished sexual intercourse without ejaculation.
  • Congenital or acquired anomalies of reproductive system anatomical structure.
  • Disorders of endocrine system (for example, pathology of pituitary gland).
  • Acquired damage to spermatogenic epithelium. This injury can be caused by ionizing radiation, number of chemicals, thermal injury, infectious diseases, injuries of the external genital organs. As a result of this pathology, production of new sperm cells is significantly reduced, or production of new spermatozoids is completely stopped, disturbances can be either reversible or not.
  • Pathologies of genome, or chromosomal abnormalities, leading to disruption of sperm production.
  • Inflammation, acute and chronic, including those caused by sexually transmitted infections.
  • Pathology of immune system, during development of which spermatogenic epithelium is damaged by patient’s own immune system.

Diagnostics

Establishing diagnosis of male infertility consists of two stages. At first stage, patient asks for medical help, with complaints about impossibility of conception, with regular sex life with same sexual partner. After that, process of examining both sexual partners begins. For man in this case, following diagnostic procedures are performed:

  • Serological methods of research allow to exclude sexually transmitted diseases, essence of this study is to search for proteins specific for venereal diseases in patient’s blood.
  • Genotyping allows to exclude genetic pathologies.
  • Ultrasound examination of external genital organs allows to evaluate structure of testicles, to exclude injuries and developmental abnormalities.

Complications

Male infertility itself is complication of inflammatory, endocrine pathologies of urogenital tract.

Disease treatment

Treatment of male infertility is rather complex and lengthy process aimed at eliminating consequences of disease that led to its development.

There is special medical direction – reproductive technologies, task of which is to ensure conception and carrying of child in any state of spermatozoa. In recent years, it has become possible to help people even completely devoid of sperm, technique allows you to use genetic material of their normal cells, for introduction of genome into egg.

In presence of spermatozoa, situation is even more simplified, doctor helps sperm cell to penetrate egg with special micromanipulator, and controls correctness of fertilization process.

Risk group

Risk group for this disease includes:

  • Persons with past sexually transmitted infections.
  • Persons exposed to ionizing radiation or chemically active substances.
  • Persons who have hormonal disorders in their close relatives.
  • Persons who have suffered injuries to external genitalia.

Prevention

Specific prevention of male infertility isn`t allocated, basis for preventing development of disease are measures aimed at protecting spermatogenic epithelium from external influences, these include:

  • Barrier contraception, and other methods of preventing sexually transmitted diseases.
  • Protection of genital organs from effects of harmful physical and chemical factors.
  • Timely access to urologist and treatment of inflammatory diseases of urogenital tract.

Diet and lifestyle

Diet for this disease has no specific features, lifestyle remains same as before disease, with exception of alcohol, nicotine, and other toxic substances.